Man vs. Machine vs. Data….?

Author: Penny Leach SLA LMD Past Chair 2017 and BIR Editorial Board Member

Please note this post contains the personal views of the author and are not connected with her employer
 

I recently had the pleasure of attending the 14th Perfect Information Conference (PIC2017) in Bath, England.  This annual event, hosted by the company Perfect Information (part of Mergermarket), brings together leaders and senior members of information services from within financial and professional service organisations with representatives of their content and service vendor partners.   The high number of repeat attendees confirms the conference’s value.  This year’s programme theme was ‘Man vs Machine: comrade or threat’.  For me (spoiler alert!) the whole event reaffirmed the current and future value and potential of humans in an increasingly technological world.

The conference programme includes keynote speakers, more practical workshops and hot topic think tanks (and of course some socialising!).  What seemed to me initially a rather disparate set of topics actually transitioned from the big picture of artificial intelligence (AI) and its future to more practical implications of change for businesses today.  Having worked myself for a short time at the (original) Turing Institute in the early days of AI, it was fascinating to hear where AI is today.

AI is all around us, was the clear answer from the three speakers who focused on this topic, respectively Marc Vollenweider (Evalueserve), Anton Fishman (Fishman & Partners) and Nicolas Bombourg (Report Linker).  Marc, who is transitioning from CEO to Chief Strategist of Evalueserve, spoke about the explosion of data sets, and the business value to be derived from cheap but effective analytic use cases.   Anton alluded to the ‘perfect storm’ of converging technologies that is affecting the world of machine learning.  Nicolas described Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) – where we are now (machines specialising in one are) – and how we are moving closer to Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) – machines thinking like humans – and even beyond to Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI).

Are we heading for dystopia or utopia?  There were references to sobering statistics about the predicted negative impact on job numbers, for example, Mark Carney’s speech on the  ‘hollowing out of the middle classes’ and Frey & Osborne’s research in to the future of work in the US.  Ultimately however the message was upbeat. Marc is definite that ‘insights need humans’, and has written about the benefits of combining mind+machine.  Anton referred to the opportunity for the ‘rise of humans’ that Microsoft’s Envisioning Officer has described.   The message is that technology is supporting humans, expanding our potential – AI is already invisibly enhancing our world.  This is not a zero sum game for mankind, even if it does create much management uncertainty, ethical dilemmas,  job redefinition and the need for a new ‘social contract’.

What were my key takeaways from these speakers and all the other interaction at the conference for me in my role as an information professional and services manager?

Information professionals do have roles to play in the new data economy, where the flow of data is driving innovation and growth, as long as they are open minded and upskill.  Marc has elsewhere talked about the emerging role of the information engineer in creating analytics solutions. McKinsey recently re-recognised the need for translators between technology and information, reaffirming the need to link IT, understanding of data, and business need.  Establishing the veracity of data is of course a traditional information professional skill.

Information professionals need to engage with the business, via new channels such as their workplace’s Chief Information or Data Officer (CIO, CDO) – wherever analytics are happening – and change the scope of their services to help the business build effective productivity tools and  new trigger-based workflows, and avoid data lakes that become data graveyards.

Change management is important – keeping people engaged, attracting new talent, enabling career progression, as well as ensuring effective use of the new tools and data by the business.

And for those directly engaged in buying and selling data there are reminders of the early days of the internet and outsourcing in the challenges of delivering and consuming data in new ways – for the vendors, what to build first for which client, how to protect the data, how to charge for it; for their clients where to focus efforts, who will eat the costs; and for both parties, how to deal with the increased visibility of data quality issues.

Overall the Conference ended on an optimistic note in contrast to the anxieties of the 2016 Conference (as described by in the opening session of the conference by Robin Neidorf) and inspite of the seismic political changes we have seen in the UK and USA in the last twelve months.  It will be interesting to hear how things have further changed for the attendees by the same time next year.

Let me know what you think of AI’s impact on your world.

Penny Leach

SLA LMD Past Chair 2017

Winner of BIR Best Paper Prize 2016

We are delighted to announce that the best paper prize winner for 2016 is Sian Tyrrell for her paper ‘From passenger to pilot – Taking the lead and building a business critical information management strategy’.   It was a close competition this time as we have had a number of exceptional submissions however we felt that Sian’s paper illustrated clearly the challenges and potential pitfalls experienced by those developing an information strategy for the first time.  There are some clear lessons learned that can be taken from the paper.  You can read the paper here for free for a short time

http://journals.sagepub.com/stoken/default+domain/GFxgVi4wGNGQ5U2THtak/full

 

 

 

Staying Fresh – putting Learning at the heart of everything we do

Author: Ceri Hughes, Head of Knowledge Centre of Excellence at KPMG in the UK

(Please note this post contains the personal views of the author)

Recently, I’ve had the opportunity to review my role and responsibilities at work. We’ve aligned our Learning and Knowledge functions into one group with the aim of protecting and enhancing quality, improving the retention of our knowledge and enabling the continuous process of acquiring knowledge, skills and confidence to improve current and future business performance.  Our new Learning function reflects the traditional elements of a learning value chain: we have Business Learning Partners; a Learning Design team; we deploy Learning Programmes and measure success through our Analytics team. But our structure is underpinned by three centres of excellence: a centre for professional qualifications and accreditation; a Coaching centre of excellence; and one for Knowledge, which includes all activities in support of knowledge management, research, competitive intelligence and collaborative working.  We’ve ramped up the focus of our knowledge strategy on how we assist with accelerating time to competence – learning on the job – and providing immediacy of knowledge, such as access to the latest insights and intelligence to ensure our colleagues have the most informed conversations with our clients.

It’s been a timely reminder for me to review my own learning and development needs and think about the technical and enabling skills that will benefit me in my role and in my new organisational home. I am guilty of neglecting my personal development somewhat. It’s ironic that I diligently review personal development plans for my team members and try to help them find the time and space to be able to learn on the job and accommodate more formal learning interventions, but I don’t prioritise this for myself at all! Stopping to take stock of this has been an eye-opener. It’s been a few years since I last attended a formal training course. Making time for networking events – which I eagerly fitted into my schedule earlier in my career – has now fallen way down my to-do list; and even though I keep a close eye on the professional press and blogosphere, and bookmark all of the articles and posts that I think sound interesting, relevant or thought-provoking, my reading pile (virtual and that teetering on the side of my desk) isn’t getting any smaller.

So, inspired by an increased workplace focus on the world of learning and professional development, I am actively seeking opportunities to learn. Signing up for a few well-chosen networking events has been an easy way to find out what issues are on the radar of other organisations and learn how they are approaching challenges that we share. It’s also been really rewarding to reconnect with old friends and colleagues. I find myself inspired and motivated on hearing how they are thinking about the challenge and opportunity of increased automation and AI; thinking about the importance of legitimacy and authenticity of information and knowledge in a world of fake news; ensuring robust information protection and governance; and the most tactical issue on my mind at the moment – a SharePoint upgrade.

Interestingly, as I’ve chatted to peers in the information industry, it seems that my neglect of my development resonated with others too! Perhaps it’s true that the longer we stay in our profession the less time we spend on developing ourselves. The real truth is, of course, that since we are constantly bombarded by technological advancements, new legislation and regulation, an increasingly sophisticated and demanding customer base and other external and internal influences or pressures (such as the need to stay ahead of the competition or constantly reduce cost and increase efficiency) developing ourselves as individuals is critical for our own success. It’s also vital for the development of the disciplines of the information profession to which we belong. We can learn from each other, sharing innovations and ideas.  If you’re in the same place that I found myself recently, please see this as a call to action to consider your personal learning and development plan. I’d love to inspire each other with ideas on how to do this, so please share your experiences in your comments.

Best Paper Prize 2017: second runner-up

Each year Business Information Review awards a prize for the best paper published over the course of the previous year. The best paper prize reflects the pinnacle of research and professional scholarship in the business information sector. Last years winners, Théresé Ahern and Jacqueline Beattie won for their paper, Embedding Library and Information Management Techniques into Business Processes: a case study, which explored the experiences of embedding librarianship and integrating the working practices and skills of the content management team with corporate workflows and processes.

This year the Editors and Editorial board have decided to recognise three papers: the best paper prize winner and two highly commended runners-up. This reflects the quality of many of the papers published over the year, and the tough competition for the best paper prize. We’ll be announcing all three papers over the coming months on this blog and in the June issue of Business Information Reviews, and all three will be available for a short period of time to download for free via this blog.

Today we are announcing the second runner-up of the Business Information Review best paper prize 2017. The second runner-up is Danny Budzak, for his paper: Information Security: The People Issue. Like our previous runner-up for the BIR best paper prize, Danny’s paper was featured in our Information Security themed issue published in June 2017. It examines the information security issues raised by the involvement of people with information systems, setting out both the threats to information systems and the risks associated with information systems, before addressing the mitigation of those threats through managing roles, responsibilities, relationships and training.

Danny Budzak’s article will be available to download for free for a short time from the link below. If you have not already read it, download it while you can; if you have already read it we recommend a second look. Meanwhile the winner of the 2017 best paper prize will be announced in the June 2017 issue of Business Information Review, and on this blog when the June issue is published.

Best Paper Prize 2017: first runner-up

Each year Business Information Review awards a prize for the best paper published over the course of the previous year. The best paper prize reflects the pinnacle of research and professional scholarship in the business information sector. Last years winners, Théresé Ahern and Jacqueline Beattie won for their paper, Embedding Library and Information Management Techniques into Business Processes: a case study, which explored the experiences of embedding librarianship and integrating the working practices and skills of the content management team with corporate workflows and processes.

This year the Editors and Editorial board have decided to recognise three papers: the best paper prize winner and two highly commended runners-up. This reflects the quality of many of the papers published over the year, and the tough competition for the best paper prize. We’ll be announcing all three papers over the coming months on this blog and in the June issue of Business Information Reviews, and all three will be available for a short period of time to download for free via this blog.

Today we are announcing the first runner-up of the Business Information Review best paper prize 2017. The first runner-up for 2017 is Nick Wilding for his paper Cyber Resilience: how important is your reputation: How effective are your people?. Nick’s paper was published in the June 2016 issue of the journal as a part of our themed issue on information security and risk. It argued that information professionals need to move beyond a concept of cyber-security toward cyber resilience, and addressed how organisations can approach preventing, detecting, responding to and recovering from cyber-attacks while minimising damage to reputation and competitive advantage. Nick’s article was very highly ranked by the Editorial Board of Business Information Review, and is essential reading for anyone involved in information security issues. Congratulations to Nick for a fantastic contribution not only to the journal but to the professional literature.

Nick Wilding’s article we be available to download for free for a short time from the link below. If you have not already read it, download it while you can; if you have already read it we recommend a second look. Meanwhile the second of our runners up will be announced here in a few weeks’ time.

Access the article for free here

Towards a Rosetta Stone for translating data between information systems

The BusinessInformation Review blog will be taking a short break over the Christmas period. In the meantime we thought it would be good to share one of the articles that appeared in December’s edition of the journal.

One of the key problems of managing information assets within organisational contexts it dealing with the problem of legacy systems and legacy information. On the one hand this is a technological issue: approaches to information management change over time and the tools improve, such that information sets become subject to uses which were never anticipated. But on the other hand, more often than not the problems posed by legacy systems is less to do with their technological underpinning than with the way in which data has been structured and ordered. The choices developers make when encoding information within database systems in particular – including the range of information that they choose to encode – can have long lasting effects on the subsequent exploitation of that data. Managing legacy information systems often then becomes a problem of data migration.

Morton et al’s outstanding paper in December’s Business Information Review tackles this problem, and explores the possibility of a Rosetta Stone approach to legacy data migration – an open-source project to ‘translate’ data between information systems. We’re making it free for a short period through this blog. The abstract is as follows:

Information systems are an important organizational asset and offer numerous benefits. However, organizations face continued challenges when upgrading ageing information systems, and the data contained within, to newer platforms. This article explores, through conversations with information systems professionals in four organizations, the potential development of a ‘Rosetta Stone’, which can translate data between systems and be used to help overcome various challenges associated with their modernization. Despite mixed feedback regarding the Rosetta Stone concept from interviewees, solutions highlighted in literature combined with participant feedback presented theories for its development, primarily as a tool to enable meaningful interpretation of data, rather than direct translation. The conclusion reflects on data collected to recommend a framework for how the tool might be developed and has the potential to be of significant interest to practitioners, open-source communities and organizations.

To access the paper, simple follow the link below. The paper will be free via this blog until the end of January. Keep an eye on this blog for more free content from Business Information Review in the future.

The General

Author: Stephen Phillips, Executive Director Morgan Stanley and BIS Editorial Board Member

Please note this post contains the personal views of the author and are not connected with his employer

I am a fan of 1960s and 1970s British science fiction TV series.  The forerunners of today’s boxed sets and the binge habits they engender, these productions reflect a simpler but no less sinister, dystopian view of the world.  I used to be somewhat embarrassed by my viewing choices, but recent events in the UK suggest I am not the only nostalgic person with a hankering to go back 40+ years to relive those halcyon days!

One particular favourite is The Prisoner, which is being rerun on one of the myriad of satellite channels.  I recently found myself watching Episode 6: “The General”, which concerns a new technology with mind altering education capabilities; teaching a three year degree course in 3 minutes via television, an early form of product placement or a new spin on information literacy perhaps?

Number 6 (the main character) believes the technology may be used for mind control and discovers “The General” to be a sophisticated super computer that can answer any question.  Number 6, determined to sabotage it asks” The General” a question it cannot answer; typed on a keyboard to produce a punched card which is then fed into a slot in the computer: the preferred GUI of the day!  The computer starts to smoke and shake as it overloads before exploding and killing the bad guys.  “What was the question?” asks Number 2, “Why?” responds Number 6.

Clearly there are many parallels with the recent emergence of super computers, AI and robotics; but not natural language programming which had not be foreseen in 1967!   However, I recount this episode for a different reason.  The reaction of “The General” was remarkably similar to that of information professionals at two recent conferences when I posed them the question: “Why do you exist?”

Having taken inspiration from Simon Sinek and his TED presentation, (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sioZd3AxmnE), website and book (https://www.startwithwhy.com/ ).  Sinek explains that, whilst we can all talk extensively about what we do and how we do it, the most successful people and organisations can articulate their “why”.

What is their “why”?  It is their purpose; the cause or belief that inspires them, allowing them to drive their business forward and appeal successfully to clients, sponsors and stakeholders?

Unfortunately, no one can tell you your Why, but I recommend you start to figure it out, and quickly.  Establishing a shared belief will galvanise you and your team with a common sense of purpose and mission.  Furthermore, if you align it with your organisations’ mission it enables your clients, sponsors and stakeholders to buy in and advocate for you.

Don’t forget,  your stakeholders do not need to know (and much less care) about what you do, and still less how you do it: that’s your job as a subject matter expert.  They do need to know Why you are there and how you will help the organisation deliver its goals.  It is critical you link your vision to your organisation’s goals, cascading that vision and the objectives to your colleagues to enable them to feel you all share the purpose.  They in turn can then link their individual objectives to those goals, thereby making them part of the whole organisation.

Unlike Number 6, we cannot cause the omnipresent (but not omniscient) super computer to go into meltdown or roll back the technology tide; but if you “magnify your mission” you will have a shared sense of purpose, understand where and how you fit in, how our contribution benefits your organisation and enable you to chart your strategy to ensure information professionals continue to create value for the future.

Privacy, Security and the crossover with Information Services

Author Tracy Maleeff, Sherpa Intelligence LLC and BIR Editorial Board Member

In the March 2017 issue of the Business Information Review, Paul Pedley wrote about the “Relevance of privacy for corporate library and information services.” I find myself in an interesting position in regards to the intersection of library and information services with information privacy and security. After enjoying library work for almost 15 years in a variety of settings, I decided to make a career move towards the information security industry. I suspected that librarians and information professionals have the skills to be integral to the security processes of an organization, and I keep finding opportunities to confirm this. Pedley’s article resonated with me because I’m essentially living in that intersection of LIS and security.

In the information security world, I often give talks, podcasts, and write about how security professionals can utilize principles from library and information science for their work. Given my unique perspective, I will share some insight on how library and information services professionals can be proactive to help their organizations with security. To compliment Paul Pedley’s article, I’ve rounded up three practical, every day security practices that can help librarians and information professionals become allies on the security front of their organizations.

Get to know the IT or security team at your organization. Before you try to execute any activities yourself, talk to the people within your organization who handle data privacy and information security matters. Find out what their pain points are and ask how your two departments can collaborate.

       Understand the basic vocabulary of security. Do you know what a DDoS is? How about an 0day? Do you know the differences between phishing, spear phishing, and whaling? You don’t need to know the technology behind these terms, but it can be helpful if you can have at least a basic understanding of the terminology used. Learning these terms can also help you do more comprehensive research for your clients or users. If you are asked to research a specific company and you see a headline with that company’s name and the letters DDoS in the headline, that’s important and you should understand how that affects the business. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has a glossary of terms. However, it is very technical, so for the less-technically inclined, utilize a resource like the National Cyber Security Alliance.

Passwords. Most libraries and on-site information professionals have a role in managing passwords for their users, as it pertains to databases and subscriptions that fall under the jurisdiction of the library. Many law firm libraries, for example, utilize enterprise electronic resource management software like Onelog. In addition to tracking usage, resources like that are also password managers. That is a great opportunity to encourage users to create long and strong passwords, and flag any duplicate usage. (Which, by the way, is a discourage password practice from a security standpoint.) Librarians and information professionals are too busy to become the “password police,” but they have a unique opportunity to help the security goals of the organization by being on the front lines of password defense when dealing with users.

I’m not suggesting that librarians and information professionals need to become security specialists, in addition to their primary jobs. What I’m advocating for is becoming security allies within organizations, be collaborative with the IT people, and learn some of the lingo in order to better service users or clients. Corporate and law firm libraries are often in a constant battle to justify their existence within an organization, to prove their value. Security and privacy issues are only going to be more prevalent. Librarians and information professionals have a unique position to gain a little bit of knowledge in this area in order to cement their position of value within an organization.

March 2017 Business Information Review

We’re pleased to announce the publication of the March edition of Business Information Review. Below is a summary of the contents in this issues.

Paul Pedley looks at the effect of technology in corporate libraries on privacy, is it an issue, should it be an issue? In his paper, Paul considers the developments in business information software which enable personalization and portability which comes along with greater usage of cloud computing. This means more recording and storage of personal data which creates privacy risks. He argues that good vendor management is important, ensuring that vendors know what privacy concerns there are. Regular data protection/privacy audits are also important.

In his second paper for BIR, Ian Hunter develops further his piece on leveraged finance. December’s issue covered researching the market size and trends. In this article, he focusses on how to find leveraged finance documents. It is an interesting paper reviewing what sources are available and how to find them, an important read for anyone starting out in corporate finance information teams.

Next is a paper from Lindsay Harris and journal board member Mary Peterson. Entitled The economic value and clinical impact of the South Australian Health Library Service 2011–2016, the paper explores one Australian state’s Health Department library service attempts to measure the economic value and clinical impact of its professional services and online resources. Developed as a case study of performance management, the paper outlines the context for the development of evaluation strategies and the key success indicators that emerged in relation to economic value. They note that “measuring in return on investment (ROI) in a cost quantifiable manner for entities such as libraries, whose central role is with the retrieval and dissemination of the abstract concept of ‘information’, shall likely always be demanding and complex to achieve. Nevertheless, libraries must now make the effort to measure and evaluate their performance in whatever ways work best for their particular conditions.” The paper presents a valuable study of the experience of measuring and communicating value to stakeholders beyond the information profession.

Our next article from Malawi, Professor Winner Chawinga, lecturer in the Department of Library and Information Science at Mzuzu University and his colleague George Chipeta, senior lecturer in the Department of Library and Information Science (LIS) at Mzuzu University, investigates how the synergy of knowledge management and competitive intelligence may be a key success driver in small and medium business enterprises (SMEs). They consider the turbulent environment that SMEs now need to operate in and the importance of identifying and gaining competitive advantage. Knowledge management techniques and competitive intelligence research are investigated as a way to achieve competitive advantage.

Out of the Box makes a one off appearance in this issue, addressing developments in AI and the challenge to professional roles. While AI is a technology that has long been on the horizon, the increasing adoption of AI technologies within professional and business services contexts points to a challenging future for a range of professional fields. Out of the box explores the latest development in the use of AI in commercial contexts and discusses the future of professional fields. A one-off feature, we hope out of the box will return in a more regular form in the near future to explore all aspects of technology in commercial contexts.

Perspectives – Martin White’s article in this issue reviews a number of interesting articles. Subjects covered include information overload – does age have an effect? The development and use of personas – how they are used in human computer design (HCD), whether or not they are a useful tool in the design process and what best practice methods to use to make the use of this tool as effective as possible. Also covered is a paper on the balance between employee autonomy and corporate control. A highly interesting subject the paper explores the increasing need for collaborative working and the tools and social networks available to achieve this against the need for corporate governance and control. What is the best way to work in the digital workplace? This paper in particular is highly recommended by Martin to read in context of your own organization.

Initiatives – We’re sad to announce that this long running column of Allan’s, which has been a fantastic contribution over the last 10 years, is going to be his last contribution to BIR. Allan has been with the journal since the beginning and up until last year had also been responsible for the annual business information survey that has been running since 1991, giving a detailed picture on developments within and the state of the information profession, delivery and use of business information. The initiatives column has run in many guises since late 1990s. Allan’s contributions started in 2007 and have provided consistent and detailed overviews of what is current and important in the information profession at the time. In his last column, Allan takes a brief look back at his time with BIR as well as updating us on the latest initiatives in the profession. Luke and I would like to take this opportunity to say a big thank-you to Allan from us and on behalf of Sage for his valuable contributions and insights over the last 33 years.

You can find the March 2017 edition here: http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/bir/current

Demonstrating value of information services – a view from South Australia

Author: Mary Peterson, BIR Board Member and Health Library Knowledge Manager at Department of Health, South Australia

We often hear or read that one of the key strategies to ensure our survival in the library and information world is to be able to demonstrate our value to our parent organisation. There’s an increasing body of literature on the subject, but when it comes down to doing it, there aren’t too many practical examples.
 
I work in the health area, managing the South Australian state government’s Department  of Health library service. In health, access to current, evidence-based information can literally mean the difference between life and death, and there’s no doubt that it’s valued by the clinicians who use it. To demonstrate the usefulness of the library and information service, it’s necessary to collect data which can be presented in meaningful ways to senior administration.
 
Libraries are very good at collecting activity statistics. In themselves, they can be very useful for the tweaking of service delivery, but they may not convey very much to anyone outside the service itself.
Some work has already been done in the health area, and has yielded some significant results. In Australia, a commissioned study by CGS Economics showed that health libraries were returning $9 for every $1 spent. (1) In the USA, one study showed that health libraries and librarians can provide information support and information literacy training which has a direct effect on clinical decision making and results in improved patient outcomes. (2) Another major study conducted over a group of teaching hospitals in the Rochester area of the USA clearly demonstrated that the work of library services had a significant impact on patient care quality. (3) The data from this study is available for use in future research projects.
 
Replicating such a piece of work isn’t always possible, dependant as it is on commitment and manpower. However, it is possible to collect data which enables the production of documents which will demonstrate the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of a library and information service. We have developed several Key Performance Indicators which have proved to be a way to clearly show our value to the organisation.
 
When looking for the types of data collection which can be manipulated to give a good picture of the library service business, we’ve looked at answering the following questions:
·       What types of service are being provided? (print / archive collections, database access, e-book access, help with searching for specific information, information literacy training)
·       Who is using the service? (doctor, nurse, allied health,  administrator)
·       What is the information going to be used for? (Research, patient care, teaching, CPD)
·       How has the information obtained been used? (Publication, patient care)
Using a simple, brief survey mounted on Survey Monkey to collect data from our patrons and with librarians collecting and inputting data on the work they do, we have produced KPIs which show:
·       Cost avoidance through services such as document delivery
·       Clinicans’ time saved
·       Summary of service efficiencies
·       Purpose / use of literature searches and information literacy training.
 
All these can be used to indicate the value of the library and information service to the work of the organisation as a whole. Using infographics where possible, these are presented in one or two pages only to ensure that the messages are clear and the effort required to read the documents is minimal. The data collection is included in the everyday workflow and would be replicable by even the smallest library and information service.
 
We have prepared an article which will be published in BIR the near future which outlines the processes behind each KPI, with the KPI documents themselves included in order that they might be used or adapted by other library services.
 
References:
(1)   The community returns generated by Australian health libraries: Final report, September 2013. SGS Economics & Planning: Canberra, 2013.
(2)   Sollenberger, J. Holloway Jr, R. The evolving role and value of libraries and librarians in health care. JAMA. 2013 Sept 25: 310(12): 1231-32.
(3)   Marshall, J. et al. Library and information services: impact on patient care quality.International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 2014:27(8): 672-83.